10 + 1 Peixes mais temidos de Rios de água doce

10 Most feared Fish in Freshwater Rivers

1. Piranha

The piranha or piraña, is a member of family Characidae in order Characiformes, an omnivorous freshwater fish that inhabits South American rivers. In Venezuela, they are called caribes. They are known for their sharp teeth and a voracious appetite for meat.
Piranhas belong to the subfamily Serrasalminae, which also includes closely related omnivorous fish such as pacus.Traditionally, only the four genera Pristobrycon, Pygocentrus, Pygopristis and Serrasalmus are considered to be true piranhas, due to their specialized teeth. However, a recent analysis showed that, if the piranha group is to be monophyletic, it should be restricted to Serrasalmus, Pygocentrus and part of Pristobrycon, or expanded to include these taxa plus Pygopristis, Catoprion, andPristobrycon striolatus. Pygopristis was found to be more closely related to Catoprion than the other three piranha genera. 
The total number of piranha species is unknown and contested, and new species continue to be described. Estimates range from fewer than 30 to more than 60. 

2. Candiru asu (Amazon flesh eaters)
(Although the Piranha is in Top 1, particularly I think this is what should be, because it is considered by the Indians a fish very disgusting).
The Candiruis a terrifying fish, even when stacked up against its fellow river monsters of the Amazon. But this parasitic freshwater catfish does not instill fear by way of its monstrous size. On the contrary, it's small, eel-like and so translucent that it can be nearly impossible to spot in the water, which makes it even more terrifying. Some claim this fish is the most feared in the entire Amazon region, and the fear stems from the fact that it has a knack for finding open orifices and working its way inside. Once inside another organism, the Candiru feeds on its host's blood, becoming increasingly swollen. The Candiru is the star of an urban legend — which turns out to be true — of a man who was urinating in the Amazon River when a 6 inches Candiru swam up his urine stream into his penis. The fish remained there for days, until a surgeon was able to remove it.
The Most Horrific Candiru: Perhaps the most horrifying Candiru species of all is the Candiru asu. This small catfish is a voracious parasite. It uses its circular mouth and sharp teeth to bite flesh and then enter organisms, leaving behind a wound that looks uncannily like a bullet hole. The Candiru asu proceeds to feed on the organs, literally eating its victim from inside. Human corpses have been discovered in the Amazon filled with more than 100 of these river monsters. Scientists and coroners have determined that the victims may have even been alive and simply incapacitated when the Candiru asu struck.
Candirus are small fish. Adults can grow to around 40 centimetres (16 in) with a rather small head and a belly that can appear distended, especially after a large blood meal. The body is translucent, making it quite difficult to spot in the turbid waters of its home. There are short sensory barbels around the head, together with short, backward pointing spines on the gill covers.

3. Demon Fish 
Hydrocynus goliath, also known as the goliath tigerfish, giant tigerfish or mbenga, is a very large African predatory freshwater fish.
This large-toothed, highly predatory fish grows to a length of 1.5-metre (4.9 ft) and a weight of 50 kilograms (110 lb).
A number of incidents have been reported in The Congo of this fish attacking humans. This reputation, combined with its strength, has earned it an almost mythical status among anglers, and it has been called the "greatest freshwater gamefish in the world.

4. Freshwater Sharks


The river sharks are five rare species of shark in the genus Glyphis, although, due to their secretive habits, other species could easily remain undiscovered. Their precise geographic range is uncertain, but the known species are documented in parts of South andSoutheast Asia and Australia. The river sharks are members of the family Carcharhinidae, and thus share the basic characteristics of the group. The bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas) is sometimes called both the river shark and the Ganges shark; it should not be confused with the river sharks of Glyphis.

5. Killer Catfish

Bagarius yarrelli, known as the Giant Devil Catfish or Goonch is a very large species of catfish in genus Bagarius found in rivers in South Asia. It is possibly also found in Southeast Asia, but this may involve a separate species. 
This fish reaches up to 2 metres (6.6 ft) in length. It may be largest species in the genus. The related B. bagarius, another species where there is considerable taxonomic confusion, has–perhaps in error–been reported as reaching the same size as B. yarrelli,while others considers B. bagarius to be a dwarf species that only reaches about 20 cm (7.9 in)

6. Arapaima


The arapaima, pirarucu, or paiche (Arapaima gigas) is a South American tropical freshwater fish. It is a living fossil and one of the largest freshwater fishes in the world.
Arapaima can reach lengths of more than 2 metres (6.6 ft), in some exceptional cases even more than 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) and over 100 kg (220 lbs).The maximum-cited weight for the species is 200 kg (440 lbs). As one of the most sought after food fish species in South America, it is often captured primarily by handheld nets for export, by spearfishing for local consumption, and, consequently, large arapaima of more than 2 m are seldom found in the wild today.

7. Snakehead fish (Africa and Asia)
courtesy of Animal Planet
The snakeheads are members of the freshwater perciform fish family Channidae, native to Africa and Asia. These elongated,predatory fish are distinguished by a long dorsal fin, large mouth and shiny teeth. They breathe air with gills as well as with suprabranchial organs developing when they grow older, which is a primitive form of a labyrinth organ. The two extant genera are Channa in Asia and Parachanna in Africa, consisting of 30-35 species.

8. Wels Catfish (Europe)

The wels catfish (Silurus glanis), also called sheatfish, is a large catfish found in wide areas of central, southern, and eastern Europe, and near the Baltic and Caspian Seas. It is a scaleless fresh and brackish water fish recognizable by its broad, flat head and wide mouth. Wels catfish can live for at least thirty years and have very good hearing.
The wels catfish lives on annelid worms, gastropods, insects, crustaceans, and fish including other catfishes; the larger ones also eat frogs, mice, rats and aquatic birds such as ducks. It is found from the United Kingdom all the way east to Kazakhstanand south to Slovenia.

9. Piraiba Catfish (Amazon River)

Brachyplatystoma is a genus of catfish from the family Pimelodidae. As the occasionally used common name goliath catfishesindicates, this genus includes some of the largest species of catfish, including the Piraíba, B. filamentosum, which reaches about 3.6 metres (12 ft) in length. Brachyplatystoma are found in the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers, and other tropical freshwater andbrackish habitats in South America. Some species are migratory. These fish are important as food fish and, to some extent,aquarium fish.

10. Giant freshwater stingray

The giant freshwater stingray (Himantura chaophraya) is a species of stingray in the family Dasyatidae, native to large rivers andestuaries of Southeast Asia. It is one of the largest freshwater fishes in the world, with reports from the Chao Phraya and Mekong Rivers of individuals weighing 500–600 kg (1,100–1,300 lbs). Its numbers are dwindling due to overfishing and habitat loss, and it is in danger of extinction. The smaller freshwater whipray of New Guinea and northern Australia was once considered to be conspecific with the giant freshwater stingray but is now recognised as a separate species. It is possible the correct scientific name for the giant freshwater stingray is Himantura polylepis.

11. Electric eel
           
The electric eel (Electrophorus electricus) is an electric fish, and the only species of the genus Electrophorus. It is capable of generating powerful electric shocks of up to 600 volts, which it uses for hunting and self-defense. It is an apex predator in its South American range. Despite its name it is not an eel but rather a knifefish.  

Source: animal.discovery.com by Jeremy Wade for
River Monsters

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