10 Invenções da China Antiga

10 Inventions of Ancient China
We know that the Chinese copy many things, but it was they who invented this:

1 - Gunpowder


Thank the Chinese alchemists by fireworks and the projectiles

Let's start with probably the most famous invention of ancient China. Legend has it that gunpowder was discovered accidentally by alchemists searching for a concoction that would give humans immortality (the quest of all alchemists, since the beginning of time). Ironically, these alchemists have just accidentally stumbled on an invention that could easily take human life.

The primitive powder was made of a mixture of potassium nitrate (saltpetre), charcoal and sulfur, and was described in 1044 in the book "Collection of the Most Important Military Techniques" compiled by Zeng Goliang. It is considered that the discovery of gunpowder occurred much earlier, since Zeng describes three different mixtures of gunpowder, and the Chinese used it for signaling and fireworks before it was used for military purposes in rudimentary grenades.

Over time, we realized that metal added to the mix created in bright colors and explosions of gunpowder - cabuum! - Born the views of modern fireworks. The mixture also proved convenient for an explosive projectiles like bullets.

2 - Compass
A bússola inventada pelos antigos chineses era usada para ler o destino da pessoa
The compass was invented by the ancient Chinese used to read a person's fate

Where would we be without the compass? Lost is where we would be. Those of us who practice walking in forests or fly on multiple types of aircraft have to thank the Chinese for guiding us safely home.

Originally, the Chinese created their compasses pointing south true. That's because they considered the south, not north, its cardinal direction. The first compasses were created in the 4th century BC and were made of magneto.

The mere existence Desso magnet is the result of a little luck. The magnet is a type of magnetite (magnetic iron natural combination) that becomes strongly magnetized when struck by lightning. The result is a mineral that is magnetized in the direction of north and south poles. We do not know precisely who had the bright idea to differentiate the direction using the magneto, but archaeological evidence point to the Chinese ladies swinging on a trampoline. The ladies would point towards the inner harmony of the ancient prophets to Chinese.


3 - Paper
Sem o papel, os piratas não poderiam fazer mapas do tesouro
Without the paper, the pirates could not make treasure maps

It is not exactly clear which came first with the ideas of converting thoughts into written language. There is a close race between the Sumerians in Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley Harappan (now Afghanistan), and quemitas in Egypt to be the first to formulate the written language. What we know is that the first languages ​​appear to have arisen about 5,000 years ago. One may argue that it dates from long before that - and it is, if you include artistic expressions such as cave paintings, as a form of written language. Once the language began to develop, however, humans wrote anything that was large enough: slabs of clay, bamboo, papyrus and some of the stones were primitive writing surfaces.Things changed after the Chinese - specifically a man named Cai Lun, an official of the court of emperor - invented the prototype of modern paper. Before the revolutionary step of Cai, Chinese wrote in thin strips of bamboo and silk, but in 105 AD, he created a mixture of wood fibers and water which is considered the predecessor of the paper as we know it. The method of Cai consisted of mixing different types of fibers such as mulberry wood, hemp fabric with water, which was crushed until the fibers are completely separated. These fibers were arranged on a rectangular porous mold and pressed to separate the water and obtain the union of fibers. The result was a rough paper. What exactly Cai Lun wrote this piece of paper is a mystery.

4 - Macaroni?
Todo mundo acha que o macarrão é uma invenção italiana, mas ela foi importada da china pelo explorador Marco Polo
Everyone thinks the pasta is an Italian invention, but it was imported from China by the explorer Marco Polo
Anyone who loves a beautiful prto of spaghetti with tomato sauce and basil might want to take your hat off to the ancient Chinese who invented the mass - not the Italians, as you may have suspected. The Italians, or better, and the Italian explorer Marco Polo, who's led the pasta from China to Italy, where food was adopted and amended with such property that seems to have been invented there.

The subject is still under discussion, but it seems that the Chinese beat the Italians and Arabs by about 2,000 years. In 2006, archaeologists excavating a 4,000 years Lajia, in Qinghai Province, near the Tibetan border, found a bowl of noodles fibrous turned upside down buried under ten feet of earth.

The newly discovered noodles may be the oldest in the world. It is made of two types of millet grain, which were grown in China for over 7,000 years. The most interesting is that even today the Chinese still use these grains to make the noodles.

5 - Barrow
O carrinho de mão, hoje ferramenta essencial na construção civil, foi usado como instrumento de guerra
The wheelbarrow today tool that alleviates the burden human, was used as an instrument of war by the ancient Chinese

The Chinese are also responsible for easing the burden of humans around the world and through the ages with the wheelbarrow. Gen. Liang Jugo, who lived during the Han Dynasty, takes credit for showing up with the concept of a wheel of a car used for carrying heavy objects in the 2nd century. The design of Jugo missed the mark by little, he did not add to the car arms that came after its invention be refined. Still, Jugo slammed Europeans for about a thousand years with his wheelbarrow.Originally, the vehicle was designed for military purposes. Recognizing the physical advantages that the wheelbarrow gave his armies on any enemy - they were used as mobile barricades and as a means of transport - the Chinese kept their invention secret for centuries.
An old folk tale also gives credit for the invention of the wheelbarrow to a farmer first century BC named Ko Yu. Although their existence is questionable, there is a common point between Yoke and Ko: as the general, the farmer kept secret his wheelbarrow to describe it in code.



6 - Seismograph
O primeiro sismógrafo, de bronze, foi criado pelo imperador Chang Heng, no segundo século da Dinastia Hen
The first seismograph, a receptacle of heavy bronze, was created by astronomer Chang Heng in the second century of the Han Dynasty
Although the Chinese could not tell anyone exactly how an earthquake on the Richter scale average (only created in 1935), they managed to invent the first detector of the world's earthquakes - a seismograph. Not only the imperial astronomer Chang Heng seismograph created during the second century of the Han Dynasty as he created a magnificent seismograph.
Creating Heng was a heavy brass container with nine dragons carved looking down on its exterior. The dragons were spaced equidistantly in the instrument, and one below each dragon sapo separate him looking up with his mouth open. Inside the receptacle, a pendulum was suspended motionless until a tremor move. Right now, the pendulum swing acionava internal levers in motion. That fire the trigger to release a held ball in the mouth of the dragon facing the direction of the epicenter of the hurricane. The ball then fall into the mouth of sapo directly below it. This first seismograph seems a bit basic, but it would take another 1,500 years until the Western nations to develop their own versions.

7 - Alcohol
Vinho, cerveja, licor, etanol. Brindemos a essa invenção chinesa!
Wine, beer, liquor, ethanol. Let us drink to this invention Chinese!
You can thank the Chinese for ethanol and isopropyl alcohol - not to mention the beer, wine and liquor. When you think about it, few creations of man have created so much joy and sadness as alcohol.
For many years it was believed that alcohol fermentation came from similar processes. At the beginning of the 3rd century BC, the Chinese had discovered how to refine food products like vinegar and soy sauce using techniques of fermentation and distillation. Distilled alcoholic beverages would follow soon after.
Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed the date of the Chinese fermentation of alcohol and creating more back. Pieces of pottery 9,000 years revealed in Henan province showed traces of alcohol. This discovery proves that the Chinese were the first to make alcohol since the previous holders of the title, the ancient Arabs, produced no alcohol until 1,000 years later.

8 - Kites
As pipas que vemos hoje já foram instrumento de pescaria, de guerra e até de disputa
The kites we see today have been fishing instrument of war and even dispute
Two ancient Chinese share the credit for creating one of the largest claims of fame. During the 4th century BC, and Gongshu Ban Mo Di, patron of art and philosopher, respectively, built kites shaped like birds dived into the wind. The novelty of the pair picked up fast.
Over time, the Chinese pipa initial adapted and found new use for it besides fun. The kites have become an easy way to fish without a boat, simply using a line and hook stuck in pipe and hanging it on a part inaccessible water. Kites also become an instrument in military applications, serving as "drones" who played with gunpowder charges on enemy fortifications. In 1232, the Chinese have used kites to play on the Mongolian camp of prisoners of war propaganda leaflets urging the Chinese captured a rebel against their captors.
Soon, the need to marry to fly the kite technology to produce another Chinese invention, the hang glider.

9 - Hang gliders
Os chineses amarravam criminosos condenados e inimigos capturados em pipas gigantes e os lançavam do alto de um morro. Nascia ali a asa delta
The Chinese tied convicted criminals and enemies caught in giant kites and launched from atop a hill. Born there to hang gliding
As discussed previously, the kites were invented in the 4th century BC. At the end of the 6th century AD, the Chinese had managed to build big kites and aerodynamic enough to support the weight of a man of average size. It was only a matter of time before someone decided to simply remove the lines of the barrels and see what happened.
The Chinese were using kites Cordless we know today as hang gliding. However, these "kites" were not used to thrill rides. The emperors worshiped forcing convicted criminals and captured enemies and jumping hills while strapped on the wings deltas. Can you imagine what happened to the poor people. But one of them ended up flying about 5 km before landing safely. With these first flights, the Chinese beat a European invention in 1335 years.

Despite all these inventions, no further revolutionized both a nation when the silk.

10 - Silk
A seda ajudou a ligar a China Antiga ao resto do mundo
The silk helped turn the ancient China to the world
Mongols, Byzantines, Greeks and Romans all found themselves unhappy, given the Chinese military innovations like gunpowder. But it was silk that helped broker peace between China and other ancient cultures. The demand for silk was so great that the delicate tissue helped connect China with the outside world through trade. The fabric originated the legendary Silk Route ada, trade routes that went from China to the Mediterranean, passing through Africa, the Middle East and Europe.
The method for handling this material produtzido the larva silk existed for 4,700 years. A scroll containing an article about the production of silk was discovered in a tomb of the Liangzhu period, which lasted from 3330 to 2200 BC Legend has it that silk was discovered by the Chinese Empress Hsi Ling-Shi. While taking tea under the shade of a mulberry tree, a cocoon of silkworm silk have fallen into your cup. When trying to remove the cocoon, she pulled a thread from cocoons, unraveling the fine thread of silk, softened by hot tea. For centuries, the Chinese kept the secret of silk production threatening death to anyone who opened the nozzle (silk was so valuable that it was sold for their weight in gold). However, the "recipe" was leaked first to the Indians, then to Japan and then to Persia. Nevertheless, only the Chinese lost control of his secret when European monks placed their hands on the eggs silkworm silk and took them to the West.

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