10 Momentos Históricos que transformaram o Mundo

10 Historical moments that Changed the World

The invention of writing
Plate with hieroglyphics, the writing of the ancient Egyptians
In Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, some five thousand years, came to writing, a form of communication that practically separated the pre-history of history. The Sumerians and the Egyptians were the first people to develop codes that allowed recording the events of his time, the daily population, administrative acts, religion. Much of what we know today of past civilization is due to the invention of writing. Early forms of it were the cuneiform of the Sumerians, and the hieroglyphs and demotic writing of the ancient Egyptians.
Nearly two millennia later, the Phoenicians, a people that ran the Mediterranean trader buying, selling and exchanging goods, developed a writing that was based on 26 characters that enabled write all existing words, and that would still be invented at all the world's languages. Much easier and convenient than the writings of the Sumerians and the Egyptians, the Phoenicians the code allowed that writing spread throughout the world.

The belief in one God
sociedades secretas
For millennia the ancient civilizations worshiped many gods. Egyptians, Babylonians, Greeks, Scandinavians, Britons and Romans were polytheists and their anthropomorphic deities normally, with characteristics similar to humans. A little less than four thousand years, tribes located between Egypt and Mesopotamia instead of idolatrarem various deities prayed to one god. According to these people that God was more powerful and majestic than all others and responsible for creating all that existed. Much of the stories about this town is the Old Testament in the Bible, and his idea of ​​a single god and invincible would be shared by the two largest and most influential religious traditions that would establish themselves in the world: the Judeo-Christian and Muslim.

The birth of philosophy
Socrates Sculpture
Between six and four centuries before the birth of Jesus Christ came to the world that only men with the act of thinking have changed the fate of civilization. Three of them practically invented and developed a way of thinking that founded the Western civilization: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle formed the triumvirate that gave us a philosophy, a way of thinking based on arguments and counterarguments. In ancient Greece, particularly in the city-state of Athens, these three philosophers began the tradition of trying to understand the world rationally, act that established the foundations of logic and scientific thought. The philosophical method developed by Socrates and Plato, and then taken to another level by Aristotle, resulted in the development of new insights into the issues under discussion in the search for universal truths.

The rise of the Roman Empire
Momentos Históricos
One of the roads built by the Romans during their Empire
Greeks, Egyptians, Phoenicians and Jews were already ancient cultures in the 3rd century BC when Rome began its expansion. People on their property, persevering in relation to their goals and faithful regarding its laws, the Romans became warriors stubborn and did a mighty city of Rome. His legions of soldiers were feared and as we were winning wars and conquered rich and important regions such as Sicily, Carthage and Gaul, the Romans became increasingly audacious.
In the 1st century BC, Rome was already an empire, absolute mistress of the western world. With its admirable builders formed a network of roads, aqueducts and buildings fabulous. His laws, administrative systems and their art formed a cultural legacy that has influenced many civilizations for centuries.

The great invasions
Momentos Históricos
In the 4th century, the Roman Empire was so great that take account of its borders was a constant concern and it had to be done by armies full of foreign troops. Moreover, excluding the Roman citizens, most of the population was slaves, heavy taxes led to riots, epidemics of plague and misery decimated populations and Christianity conquered more and more followers who refused to obey the emperor. The weakening of the Empire became a target for people under his rule, as the Germans, as well as hordes of warriors from the East, such as the Huns. The fall of the Roman Empire led to a time of fear and insecurity, with constant wars and pillaging towns. The uncertainties have led to fears of witchcraft and demons, and Christianity has advanced as a salvation. The populations migrated to the countryside, taken by the nobles, and cities lost their importance. The economy has to be based on the exchange and came a feudal economic system. For centuries the Western world plunged into the darkness of ignorance and superstition.

The birth of the bourgeoisie
Momentos Históricos
In a period called the Middle Ages, which began in the 11th century, traders and craftsmen who lived in the cities, most of which were few, small and winding alleys, tired of living at the mercy of feudal lords. As money had constituted armies themselves and their cities turned into fortresses. These city dwellers, or "boroughs", which made money and power were called bourgeois and were no longer share the values ​​that prevailed in the Middle Ages. The emergence of the bourgeoisie and its political-economic alliance with monarchs resulted in the end of the feudal economy and the rise of mercantilism, the strengthening of national states in the early era of the great navigations and colonialism and the construction of a new consciousness that prized freedom of thought and artistic period that resulted in a rich and commercially, called Renaissance.

The Enlightenment
Voltaire was a major Enlightenment thinkers
The movement of free thinking and revival of trade in the Renaissance in the 15th century, and that marked the beginning of the Modern Age reached its apogee with the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment movement emerged in Europe between the 17th and 18th centuries. During this period occurred impressive transformations and developments in philosophy, the arts, sciences and politics. On the basis of the idea was considered Enlightenment logic and reason as the main instruments for man to know the universe and improving their living conditions. It was a time when the main objective of the use of reason was to give to human knowledge, freedom and happiness. During the nearly two hundred years of the Enlightenment period, searched the man and found more things than in the previous two thousand years. The philosophy of the Enlightenment, as it was called by illuminating the period of "darkness" before, mainly from the Middle Ages, had three fundamental principles: tolerance, reason and benevolence.

The French Revolution
Revolução francesa
The fall of the Bastille was a major episodes of the French Revolution
In the second half of the 18th century Enlightenment ideals were everywhere. The success of the Americans in their war for independence (1775-1783) inspired in various parts of the world yearn for freedom, equality and fraternity and stimulated feelings antimonarquistas. In France, the chaotic situation in the country has led to a violent revolution which began in 1789 and which enshrine the principles of the Enlightenment through Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Inspired by the Declaration of Independence of the United States to base it was the principle that all men were equal and should be treated equally before the law.
In the decades following the ideas of the French Revolution spread throughout Europe and then the world, leading to the consecration of the republic as a new governance model and the order of nobility, replaced by the bourgeoisie.

The Industrial Revolution
Máquinas à vapor foram a base da Revolução Industrial
Steam engines enabled the Industrial Revolution
Since Galileo Galilei many thinkers and scientists supported the idea that everything in nature could be observed under a rational and mathematical angle. This was not only one of the most important principles of the Enlightenment but also enabled the human being to understand and exploit the natural energies. By understanding, mastering and putting these energies at their service man began an unprecedented revolution, a change that would put these forces as a replacement of human labor.
In the second half of the 18th century began an era of discoveries and inventions that reshaped societies culturally and economically. To these changes gave the name of the Industrial Revolution, a process that laid the groundwork for a new model of civilization. Came the agrarian economy and craft and spent the predominate one based on machines and industrial production. The Industrial Revolution began in England from a succession of mechanical inventions that enabled productivity gains to unimagined human labor. A transformation that led to socioeconomic and cultural impacts and consolidated the urban bourgeoisie as a new ruling class.

The Two World Wars
Momentos Históricos
Since the Industrial Revolution, the major powers of the world in search of markets for its growing production, shared the planet with their colonies and spheres of influence. In the early 20th century this model was exhausted and rich countries fearful of each other constituted strong armies. But the desire expansionist caused an incident in Austria in the spring of 1914 served as pretext for that country to declare war against Serbia. Russia sided with the Serbs fearing the approach of the Austrian army and its borders Germany was allied to Austria. Since then several European countries were involved and a bloody conflict - World War I - spread over four years, with nearly 20 million deaths. The Russian participation in the war was one of the reasons for the Bolshevik revolution that led to the emergence of Soviet Socialist Republics Union of.
The end of the conflict between other legacies left a situation of misery and humiliation in the two major defeated nations: Austria and Germany. This situation would feed intolerance, nationalism and a dangerous revolt in the following years. In the late 1930s, the German people steeped in poverty and unemployment has led to a new war. This World War II had a hand countries with authoritarian governments, such as Germany, Italy and Japan, and other democratic countries, such as France, England and the United States. The conflict took place from 1939 to 1945 and claimed the lives of about 70 million people. By war's end, two superpowers emerged with two opposing political and economic systems: the United States, with its liberal democracy, and the Soviet Union, with its model of socialism.

Source: discovery.com


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