10 Fascinantes Espécies de Pinguins no Mundo

10 Fascinating Penguin Species in the World
Since the Academy Award-winning documentary "March of the Penguins" debuted in 2005, penguins have held a prominent place in popular culture. From books and movies to clothing and home décor, these adorable flightless birds can be found pretty much everywhere.
 There are 17 to 20 different species of penguins in existence today, and they’re found across the southern hemisphere — from the Galapagos Islands to Antarctica.
Note: The numbering is just an indication.

1. Emperor penguin
Emperor penguin
Reaching heights of 4 feet, the Emperor penguin is the tallest of all penguin species. The bird lives in Antarctica, where it dives for fish, krill and crustaceans, and it can reach depths of 1,755 feet and stay submerged for up to 18 minutes. The Emperor penguin is best known for its annual journey to mate and feed its offspring, which was the focus of the documentary “March of the Penguins.”

2. Adelie penguin
Adelie penguin feeding chick
Named after explorer Jules Dumont d’Urville’s wife, Adele, these penguins live on the Antarctic coast and can swim at speeds of up to 45 miles per hour. The birds are easily recognizable by the distinctive white rings around their eyes and the fact that they’re mostly black with a white belly — giving them an appearance close to the stereotypical image of penguins.

3. Humboldt penguin
Humboldt penguins
Humboldt penguins are native to Chile and Peru and nest on islands and rocky coasts, often burrowing holes in guano. The birds’ numbers are declining due to overfishing, climate change and ocean acidification, and the animal is considered a vulnerable spcies. In 2010, Humboldt penguins were granted protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

4. Yellow-eyed penguin
Yellow-eyed penguin
Native to New Zealand, these birds may be the most ancient of all living penguins, and they live long lives, with some individuals reaching 20 years of age. Habitat destruction, introduced predators and disease have caused the penguins’ numbers to drop to an estimated population of 4,000. In 2004, a disease linked to a genus of bacteria that causes diphtheria in humans, wiped out 60 percent of the yellow-eyed penguins chicks on the Otago Peninsula. The species is endangered.
Note: The yellow-eyed penguin, or Hoiho, appears on the New Zealand $5 note.

5. Chinstrap penguin
Chinstrap penguin
Chinstrap penguins are easily recognizable by the black bands under their heads that give them the appearance of wearing helmets. They’re found in Antarctica, the Sandwich Islands and other southern island chains, where they live on barren islands and congregate on icebergs during winter. Experts consider these birds to be the most aggressive species of penguin.

6. African penguin
African penguin
These penguins are native to southern Africa and are the only penguins that breed on the continent. In fact, their presence is how the Penguin Islands got their name. African penguins are also called “jackass penguins” because of the donkey-like sounds they make. The species is endangered, with fewer than 26,000 breeding pairs remaining.

7. King penguins
King penguin
King penguins are the second largest species of penguin and can grow to 3 feet tall. The animals live in Antarctica, which has an estimated population of 2.23 million pairs, and the penguins are well adapted to the extreme living conditions. The birds boast 70 feathers per square inch of their bodies and have four layers of feathering. Like most penguins, king penguins are able to drink saltwater because their supraorbital glands filter out excess salt.

8. Little penguin
Little penguin
The smallest species of penguin, the little penguin grows to an average height of 13 inches and can be found on the coasts of southern Australia and New Zealand. With about 350,000 to 600,000 of the animals in the wild, the species isn’t endangered; however, people still go to great lengths to protect the birds from predation. In some parts of Australia, Maremma sheepdogs have been trained to guard penguin colonies, and in Sydney, snipers have been deployed to protect little penguins from fox and dog attacks.

Note: Linus Torvalds, the creator of the Linux operating system, was once pecked by a little penguin, which inspired him to use a penguin as the Linux mascot.

9. Macaroni penguin
Macaroni penguin
The macaroni penguin is one of six species of crested penguin, those penguins with yellow crests and red bills and eyes. The birds are found from the Subantarctic to the Antarctic Peninsula, and with 18 million individuals, the animals are the most numerous penguin species in the world. However, widespread declines in population have been reported since the 1970s, which has resulted in their conservation status being reclassified as vulnerable.

Note: Macaroni penguins have proved to be popular cartoon characters and have appeared in “The Penguins of Madagascar” and “Happy Feet.”

10. Galapagos penguin
Galapagos penguin
This species of penguin is able to survive in the tropical climate of the Galapagos Islands due to the cool temperatures from the Humboldt Current. The third smallest species of penguin, the birds are particularly vulnerable to predation, and with an estimated population of around 1,500 birds, the species is endangered.

Source: mnn.com

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