10 Animais extintos por mão Humana

10 Extinct Animals by Human Hand
Many other animals large and small have been extinct in recent decades, but here we list that caused the greatest impact, either in the environment whether in human Awareness.

10. Western black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis longipes) - Cameroon

Year: 2011
Cause of death: Poaching of rhino horn.
The western black rhinoceros or West African black rhinoceros is an extinct subspecies of the black rhinoceros.They were believed to have been genetically different from other rhino subspecies. It was once widespread in the savanna of sub-Saharan Africa but its numbers declined due to poaching. The western black rhinoceros resided primarily in Cameroon, but recent surveys have failed to locate any individuals. In 2011 it was declared extinct by the IUCN.

9. Baiji, or, Chinese river dolphin, Yangtze River dolphin (Lipotes vexillifer) - China

Year: 2006
Cause: Hunting, Loss of Habitat, pollution, industrial expansion.

The World Conservation Union (IUCN) has noted the following as threats to the species: a period of hunting by humans during the Great Leap Forward, entanglement in fishing gear, the illegal practice of electric fishing, collisions with boats and ships, habitat loss, and pollution.
During the Great Leap Forward, when traditional veneration of the baiji was denounced, it was hunted for its flesh and skin, and quickly became scarce.
As China developed economically, pressure on the river dolphin grew significantly. Industrial and residential waste flowed into the Yangtze. The riverbed was dredged and reinforced with concrete in many locations. Ship traffic multiplied, boats grew in size, and fishermen employed wider and more lethal nets. Noise pollution caused the nearly blind animal to collide with propellers. Stocks of the dolphin's prey declined drastically in the late 20th century, with some fish populations declining to one thousandth of their pre-industrial levels.
In the 1970s and 1980s, an estimated half of baiji deaths were attributed to entanglement in fishing gear. By the early 2000s, electric fishing was considered "the most important and immediate direct threat to the baiji's survival." Though outlawed, this fishing technique is widely practiced throughout China. The building of the Three Gorges Dam further reduced the dolphin's habitat and facilitated an increase in ship traffic.

8. Pyrenean ibex, or, "Bucardo" (Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica) - Spain

Illustration from 1898
Year: 2000
Cause: Hunting, competition with introduced animals by man.
The Pyrenean ibex was one of four subspecies of the Spanish ibex. The first to become extinct was the Portuguese ibex (Capra pyrenaica lusitanica) in 1892. The Pyrenean ibex was the second, with the last individual, a female called Celia, found dead in 2000.
In the Middle Ages, Pyrenean ibex were very abundant in the Pyrenees region but decreased rapidly in the 19th and 20th centuries due to hunting pressure. In the second half of the 20th century only a small population survived in the National Odessa Park situated in the Spanish Central Pyrenees.
Competition with domestic and wild ungulates also contributed to the extinction of the Pyrenean ibex. Much of the range of the Spanish ibex was shared with sheep, domestic goats, cattle and horses, especially in summer months when it was in high mountain pastures. This led to interspecific competition and overgrazing, which affected the ibex particularly in dry years. In addition, the introduction of alochtonous wild ungulate species in areas occupied by the ibex increased the grazing pressure, as well as the risk of transmission of both native and exotic diseases.
The last natural Pyrenean ibex, a female named Celia, was found dead on January 6, 2000, next to a fallen tree. Although her cause of death is known, the reason for the extinction of the subspecies as a whole is a mystery. Some hypotheses include the inability to compete with other species for food, infections and diseases, and poaching. The Pyrenean ibex became the first taxon ever to become "un-extinct", for a period of seven minutes in January 2009, when a cloned female ibex was born alive and survived a short time, before dying from lung defects.

7. Aldabra banded snail (Rhachistia aldabrae) - Seychelles

Drawing of the shell of Rhachistia aldabrae
Year: 1997
Cause: Global warming.
The habitat of this snail suffered a sudden decline in rainfall, which was essential to the survival of this species, and this dryness appears to have caused its extinction.

6. Caspian tiger, or, Hyrcanian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) - Central Asia
Panthera tigris virgata.jpg
Captive Caspian tiger, Berlin Zoo, 1899
Year: 1970
Cause: Hunting, disease.
The last Caspian tigers
In Iraq the only reported Caspian tiger was killed near Mosul in 1887. The last known tiger in the Causasus region was killed in 1922 near Tbilisi, Georgia, after taking domestic livestock. They disappeared from the Tarim River basin in Xinjiang in the 1920s. In Kazakhstan the last tiger was recorded in 1948 in the environs of the Ili River, their last stronghold in the region of Lake Balkhash. In Turkmenistan the last tiger was killed in January 1954 in the valley of the Sumbar River in the Kopet-Dag Range. In Iran's Golestān Province one of the last tigers was shot in 1953; one individual was sighted in the area in 1958. In the Tian Shan mountains west of Ürümqi in China, the last Caspian tigers disappeared from the Manasi River basin in the 1960s. The last record from the lower reaches of the Amu-Darya river near the Aral Sea was an unconfirmed observation near Nukus in 1968. By the early 1970s, tigers disappeared from the river’s lower reaches and the Pyzandh Valley in the Turkmen-Uzbek-Afghan border region.
There are claims of a documented killing of a tiger at Uludere, Hakkari in Turkey in 1970. Questionnaire surveys conducted in southeastern Turkey revealed that one to eight tigers were killed each year in eastern Turkey until the mid 1980s, and that tigers likely had survived in the region until the early 1990s. Due to lack of interest in addition to security and safety reasons, no further field surveys were carried out in the area.
Last efforts to save Caspian tigers from extinction
In 1938, the first protected area Tigrovaya Balka, "tiger former river channel", was established in Tajikistan. The name was given to this zapovednik after a tiger had attacked two Russian Army officers riding horseback along a dried-up river channel called balka. Tigrovaya Balka was the last stronghold of Caspian tigers in the Soviet Union, and is situated in the lower reaches of Vakhsh River between the Piandj and Kofarnihon River near the border of Afghanistan. The last Caspian tiger was seen there in 1958.
Since 1947, tigers were legally protected in the USSR.
In Iran, Caspian tigers have been protected since 1957, with heavy fines for shooting. In the early 1970s, biologists from the Iran Department of the Environment searched several years for Caspian tigers in the uninhabited areas of Caspian forests, but did not find any evidence of their presence.

5. Tasmanian tiger, or, Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) - Australia
Thylacines in Washington D.C., 1906
Year: 1936
Cause: Hunting, competition with introduced animals by man.
Extinction in Tasmania
Although the thylacine had been close to extinction on mainland Australia by the time of European settlement, and went extinct there some time in the nineteenth century, it survived into the 1930s on the island state of Tasmania. At the time of the first settlement, the heaviest distributions were in the northeast, northwest and north-midland regions of the state. They were rarely sighted during this time but slowly began to be credited with numerous attacks on sheep. This led to the establishment of bounty schemes in an attempt to control their numbers. The Van Diemen's Land Company introduced bounties on the thylacine from as early as 1830, and between 1888 and 1909 the Tasmanian government paid £1 per head for dead adult thylacines and ten shillings for pups. In all they paid out 2,184 bounties, but it is thought that many more thylacines were killed than were claimed for. Its extinction is popularly attributed to these relentless efforts by farmers and bounty hunters. However, it is likely that multiple factors led to its decline and eventual extinction, including competition with wild dogs introduced by European settlers, erosion of its habitat, the concurrent extinction of prey species, and a distemper-like disease that also affected many captive specimens at the time. Whatever the reason, the animal had become extremely rare in the wild by the late 1920s. Despite the fact that the thylacine was believed by many to be responsible for attacks on the sheep, in 1928 the Tasmanian Advisory Committee for Native Fauna had recommended a reserve to protect any remaining thylacines, with potential sites of suitable habitat including the Arthur-Pieman area of western Tasmania.
The last known Thylacine to be killed in the wild was shot in 1930.

4. Passenger pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) - U.S.A.
Live Passenger Pigeon in 1896, kept by C.O. Whitman
Year: 1914
Cause: Hunting, disease.
The extinction of the Passenger Pigeon has two major causes: commercial exploitation of pigeon meat on a massive scale and loss of habitat.
Large flocks and communal breeding made the species highly vulnerable to hunting. As the flocks dwindled in size, populations decreased below the threshold necessary to propagate the species. Naturalist Paul R. Ehrlich wrote that its extinction "illustrates a very important principle of conservation biology: it is not always necessary to kill the last pair of a species to force it to extinction."
Pigeons were shipped by the boxcar to the eastern cities. In New York City, in 1805, a pair of pigeons sold for two cents. Slaves and servants in 18th- and 19th-century America often saw no other meat. By the 1850s, the numbers of birds seemed to be decreasing, but still the slaughter continued, accelerating to an even greater level as more railroads were developed after the American Civil War.
Alcohol-soaked grain intoxicated the birds and made them easier to kill. Smoky fires were set to nesting trees to drive them from their nests.

3. Hokkaido wolf (Canis lupus hattai) - Japan

Year: 1889
Cause: Poisoning.
The Hokkaidō wolf became extinct during the Meiji restoration period. The wolf was deemed a threat to ranching (which the Meiji government promoted at the time) and targeted via a bounty system and a direct chemical extermination campaign. Hokkaido experienced significant development during this period and the Hokkaidō wolf also suffered from resulting environmental disruption.
Sightings of the Hokkaidō wolf have been claimed from the time of its extinction to the present day, but none of these have been verified.

2. Quagga (Equus quagga quagga) - South Africa
Quagga photo.jpg
Female quagga in London Zoo, 1870
Year: 1883
Cause: Hunting
The quagga is an extinct subspecies of the plains zebra, which was once found in great numbers in the Karoo of the former Cape Province and the southern part of the former Orange Free State in South Africa. It was distinguished from other zebras by having the usual vivid stripes on the front part of the body only. In the midsection, the stripes faded and became wider, amalgamating into the plain brown of the rear parts. The legs completely lacked stripes and were lightly coloured. The name comes from a Khoikhoi word for zebra and is onomatopoeic, being said to resemble the quagga's call. The only quagga to have been photographed alive was a mare at the Zoological Society of London's Zoo in Regent's Park in 1870.

1. Atlas Bear (Ursus arctos crowtheri) - Morocco / Libya
Probable Atlas bear in Roman mosaic
Year: 1870
Cause: Hunting
Thousands of these bears were hunted for sport, venatio games, or execution of criminals ad bestias following the expansion of the Roman Empire into North Africa (began in 146 CE by creation of Africa), completed in 44 AD/CE by annexation of Mauretania). The last known specimen was probably killed by hunters in the 1870s in the Rif mountains of northern Morocco, although reports still surface. The possibility has been raised that the species might still be alive in eastern Africa, and is the source of the cryptid known as the nandi bear, but this hypothesis has essentially been ruled out by biogeography.[citation needed] Nonetheless, as the known distribution of the Atlas bear is a relict of the desertification of the Sahara, its ancestor may have been widespread in northern and eastern Africa in prehistoric times.

Source: wikipedia.org and iucn.org (International Union for Conservation of Nature)


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