10 Mamíferos venenosos no Mundo

10 Venomous Mammals in the World
Note: Not to be confused with List of poisonous animals.

1. European mole (Talpa europaea)

The European mole is a mammal of the order Soricomorpha. It is also known as the common mole and the northern mole.
This mole lives in an underground tunnel system, which it constantly extends. It uses these tunnels to hunt its prey. Under normal conditions the displaced earth is pushed to the surface, resulting in the characteristic molehills. It feeds mainly on earthworms, but also on insects, centipedes and even mice and shrews. Its saliva contains toxins which paralyze earthworms in particular, the venom is not lethal to humans.

2. Platypus (male) (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)

While both male and female platypuses are born with ankle spurs, only the male's spurs produce a cocktail of venom, composed largely of defensin-like proteins (DLPs), three of which are unique to the platypus. The DLPs are produced by the immune system of the platypus. Although powerful enough to kill smaller animals such as dogs, the venom is not lethal to humans, but the pain is so excruciating, the victim may be incapacitated. Oedema rapidly develops around the wound and gradually spreads throughout the affected limb. Information obtained from case histories and anecdotal evidence indicates the pain develops into a long-lasting hyperalgesia (a heightened sensitivity to pain) that persists for days or even months. Venom is produced in the crural glands of the male, which are kidney-shaped alveolar glands connected by a thin-walled duct to a calcaneus spur on each hind limb. The female platypus, in common with echidnas, has rudimentary spur buds which do not develop (dropping off before the end of their first year) and lack functional crural glands.
The venom appears to have a different function from those produced by nonmammalian species; its effects are not life-threatening to humans, but nevertheless powerful enough to seriously impair the victim. Since only males produce venom and production rises during the breeding season, it may be used as an offensive weapon to assert dominance during this period.

3. Elliot's short-tailed shrew (Blarina hylophaga)

Possibly have a venomous bite.
Elliot's short-tailed shrew is similar in appearance to the closely related southern short-tailed shrew, although slightly larger on average, and was long thought to belong to the same species. It is a heavily built shrew with short legs and tail, and a long, pointed snout with long whiskers. The ears and eyes are both small, the eyelids being permanently closed in some individuals, a feature otherwise unknown among shrews. Although powerful enough to kill smaller animals, the venom is not lethal to humans.

4. Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens)

Capable of delivering a venomous bite.
The Eurasian water shrew, lives close to fresh water, hunting aquatic insects, snails, molluscs and small amphibians, especially newts, and other prey in the water and nearby. Its fur traps bubbles of air in the water which greatly aids its buoyancy, but requires it to anchor itself to remain underwater for more than the briefest of dives.
Like many shrews, the water shrew has venomous saliva, making it one of the few venomous mammals, although it is not able to puncture the skin of large animals such as humans. Highly territorial, it lives a solitary life and is found throughout northern Eurasia, from Ireland to North Korea.

5. Northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda)
Blarina brevicauda 2.jpg
Capable of delivering a venomous bite.
The northern short-tailed shrew is the largest shrew in the genus Blarina, and occurs in the northeastern region of North America. It is one of the few venomous mammals. The specific epithet, brevicauda, is a combination of the Latin brevis and cauda, meaning "short tail".
The saliva of the northern short-tailed shrew contains a kallikrein-like protease, used to paralyze and subdue its prey. The toxin is strong enough to kill small animals, up to sizes somewhat larger than the shrew itself, and results in painful bites to humans who attempt to handle the shrew. The poisonous saliva is secreted from submaxillary glands, through a duct at the base of the lower incisors, where the saliva flows along the groove formed by the two incisors, and into the prey. The toxin is very similar in structure to the one used by the Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum), but evolved independently, however, from the same precursor protein.
One of the venom components, a peptide called soricidin, has been patented and is being investigated in Canada for pain control and as an anticancer drug. Another component is being studied in Japan as an antihypertensive agent.

6. Southern short-tailed shrew (Blarina carolinensis)
Blarina carolinensisPCSL20933B.jpg
Possibly have a venomous bite.
The southern short-tailed shrew's diet consists of insects, annelids, vegetable matter, centipedes, spiders, scorpions, mollusks, rodents and reptiles, and it has been known to store snails for the winter. The saliva is venomous and is injected into the wounds of its prey by the teeth. Its venom is strong enough to kill mice, but is not lethal to humans,though it causes severe pain.

7. Cuban solenodon (Solenodon cubanus)

The Cuban solenodon or almiqui, is a species of soricomorph endemic to Cuba. It belongs to the family Solenodontidae along with a similar species, the Hispaniolan solenodon (Solenodon paradoxus). The solenodon is unusual among mammals in that its saliva is venomous.
This species has a varied diet. At night, they search the forest floor litter for insects and other invertebrates, fungi, and roots. They climb well and feed on fruits, berries, and buds, but have more predatory habits, too. With venom from modified salivary glands in the lower jaw, they can kill lizards, frogs, small birds, or even rodents. They seem not to be immune to the venom of their own kind, and cage mates have been reported dying after fights.

8. Haitian solenodon, or, Hispaniolan Solenodon (Solenodon paradoxus)
Hispaniolan Solenodon crop.jpg
Solenodons look similar to very large shrews. They both have venomous bites; the venom is delivered from modified salivary glands via grooves in their second lower incisors.

9. Slow loris (Nycticebus coucang, Nycticebus bengalensis, Nycticebus pygmaeus, Nycticebus kayan)

Brachial glands on the inside of the elbows of the slow loris secrete a brown exudate. This exudate is licked and becomes mixed with saliva. A protein in the secretion, which is similar to the allergen protein isolated from the domestic cat, may be introduced by the bites of slow lorises, resulting in anaphylaxis. Thus, it is questionable whether the slow loris should be considered truly venomous.

10. Hedgehogs (Erinaceinae) (though not inherently)
(possibly venomous animal)
Hedgehogs will anoint their spines with a range of toxic and irritating substances. They will sometimes kill toads (Bufo) and bite into the toads' poison glands and smear the toxic mixture on their spines. Tenrecs, similar in appearance to hedgehogs but of a different line of descent, may also have evolved separately somewhat different self-anointing behaviour. Whether such self-anointing in hedgehogs and tenrecs is involved in defense, scent-camouflage, to appeal to the opposite sex, or a combination of these or other reasons is a debated topic.

Source: wikipedia.org


Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...