10 Primeiras Máquinas Voadoras do Mundo

10 Early flying machines of the World
This article is an overview of early flying machines and aviation research, and an analysis of the debates over early flying machines. The story of flight begins more than a century before the 1903 Wright Flyer, and goes on some decades with rotorcraft.
Claims to first flying machine (unmanned) by date.

1. Archytas, Ancient Greece - 428-347 BC
File:Archytas of Tarentum MAN Napoli Inv5607.jpg
Bust from the Villa of the Papyri in Herculanum, once identified as Archytas, now thought to be Pythagoras
According to Aulus Gellius, the Ancient Greek philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, statesman, and strategist, Archytas, (428–347 BC) was reputed to have designed and built the first artificial, self-propelled flying device, a bird-shaped model propelled by a jet of what was probably steam, said to have actually flown some 200 metres. This machine, which its inventor called The Pigeon (Greek: Περιστέρα "Peristera"), may have been suspended on a wire or pivot for its flight.

2. Hezârfen Ahmed Çelebi, Ottoman Empire - 1630/1632
Hezârfen Ahmed Çelebi Glider Flight Path.png
Hezârfen Ahmed Çelebi, Ottoman Empire, an experimenter with early airship designs
In 1630–1632 Hezârfen Ahmed Çelebi claimed to have achieved sustained unpowered flight with a flying machine.
The 17th century writings of Evliyâ Çelebi relate this story of Hezârfen Ahmed Çelebi:
"First he practiced by flying over the pulpit of Okmeydanı eight or nine times with eagle wings, using the force of the wind. Then, as Sultan Murad Khan (Murad IV) was watching from the Sinan Pasha mansion at Sarayburnu, he flew from the very top of the Galata Tower and landed in the Doğancılar Square in Üsküdar, with the help of the south-west wind. Then Murad Khan granted him a sack of golden coins, and said: 'This is a scary man. He is capable of doing anything he wishes. It is not right to keep such people,' and thus sent him to Algeria on exile. He died there".

3. Bartolomeu de Gusmão, Portugal - 1709
Passarola, Bartolomeu de Gusmão’s airship
Bartolomeu de Gusmão, Brazil and Portugal, an experimenter with early airship designs
In 1709 Bartolomeu de Gusmão demonstrated a small airship model before the Portuguese court, but never succeeded with a full-scale model.

4. Mikhail Lomonosov, Russia - 1754
In July 1754, Mikhail Lomonosov demonstrated a small tandem rotor to the Russian Academy of Sciences. This aerodyne was self-powered by a spring.

5. George Cayley, United Kingdom - 1804
Cayley Glider Replica Flown By Derek Piggott 2.jpg
A replica of Cayley's glider being flown by Derek Piggott in 1973
In 1804 Cayley built and successfully flew a 5 ft (1.5 m) glider with a kite-shaped wing and an adjustable cruciform tail.

6. Alphonse Pénaud, France - 1871
Pénaud's flying models.jpg
Top to bottom: 1870 helicopter
1871 'Planophore
1873 ornithopter
An early successful model aeroplane was the rubber-powered "Planophore". The 0.45 m (1 ft 6 in) span model achieved a flight of 60 m (200 ft) in August 1871.

7. Victor Tatin, France - 1879
Victor Tatin aeroplane 1879.jpg
Victor Tatin airplane of 1879. Original craft, at Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace.
First aeroplane to lift itself under its own power, the Aeroplane was a 1.9 m (6.2 ft) model powered by a compressed-air engine.

8. Chūhachi Ninomiya, Japan - 1894
Developed several small powered models including an early tailless aircraft.

9. Louis-Sébastien Lenormand, France - 1783
Early flight 02561u (3).jpg
Lenormand jumps from the tower of the Montpellier observatory, 1783. Illustration from the late 19th Century.
Considered the first human to make a witnessed descent with a parachute. On December 26, 1783 he jumped from the tower of the Montpellier observatory in front of a crowd that included Joseph Montgolfier, using a 14 foot parachute with a rigid wooden frame.

10. Pilâtre de Rozier, France - 1783
Ballon de Rozier.jpg
The first tethered balloon ascent on 15 October 1783 by Rozier.
Pilâtre de Rozier made the first trip by a human in a free-flying balloon (the Montgolfière): 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) covered in 25 minutes, 21 November 1783, near Paris.

Abbas Ibn Firnas
The 9th century Muslim Berber polymath Abbas Ibn Firnas covered his body with vulture feathers and 'flew faster than a phoenix" according to a contemporary poem. This is the first attempt at heavier-than-air flight in aviation history backed by a contemporary documentary source.

Eilmer of Malmesbury
In 1010 AD an English monk, Eilmer of Malmesbury, purportedly piloted a primitive gliding craft from the tower of Malmesbury Abbey. Eilmer was said to have flown over 200 yards (180 m) before landing, breaking both his legs. He later remarked that the only reason he did not fly further was because he forgot to give it a tail, and he was about to add one when his concerned Abbot forbade him any further experiments.

Source: wikipedia.org and others


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