10 Vulcões de Lava mais ativos do Mundo

10 Most Active Lava Volcanoes of the World
Lava lakes are large volumes of molten lava, usually basaltic, contained in a volcanic vent, crater, or broad depression. The term is used to describe both lava lakes that are wholly or partly molten and those that are solidified (sometimes referred to as frozen lava lakes in this case).
Note: Persistent lava lakes are a rare phenomenon. Only a few volcanoes have hosted persistent or near-persistent lava lakes during recent decades: there are only four in the world.

1. Erta Ale, Ethiopia
Erta-ale lac-de-lave 2001.jpg
Erta Ale is a continuously active basaltic shield volcano in the Afar Region of northeastern Ethiopia, the most active volcano in Ethiopia. It is in the Afar Depression, a badland desert area spanning the border with Eritrea, and the volcano itself is surrounded completely by an area below sea level, making it a relatively low-elevation volcano. With one or sometimes two active lava lakes at the summit which occasionally overflow on the south side of the volcano.
Erta Ale 2.jpg
 It is notable for being the longest-existing lava lake, present since the early years of the twentieth century (1906).

2. Mount Erebus, Antarctica (Ross Island)
Mount Erebus is currently the most active volcano in Antarctica and is the current eruptive zone of the Erebus hotspot. The summit contains a persistent convecting phonolitic lava lake, one of five long-lasting lava lakes on Earth. Characteristic eruptive activity consists of Strombolian eruptions from the lava lake or from one of several subsidiary vents, all lying within the volcano's inner crater.
The volcano has been observed to be continuously active since 1972.

3. Kilauea, Hawaii (Big Island)
(two lava lakes in both Halemaʻumaʻu and Pu'u O'o craters)
a. Halemaumau Crater, Kilauea, Hawaii

Halemaumau crater is a pit crater located within the much larger summit caldera of Kilauea in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. The roughly circular crater floor is 770 metres (2,530 ft) x 900 metres (2,950 ft) and is 83 metres (270 ft) below the floor of Kilauea caldera. According to the Hawaii Volcano Observatory the crater is currently active, with lava in an open vent fluctuating from 70 to 150 meters below the crater floor.

b. Puu Oo, Kilauea, Hawaii
Puu Oo - Crater Lava pond 1990.jpg
Is a cinder/spatter cone in the eastern rift zone of the Kilauea volcano of the Hawaiian Islands. Puu Oo  has been erupting continuously since January 3, 1983, making it the longest-lived rift-zone eruption of the last two centuries.

4. Mount Nyiragongo, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Lava Lake Nyiragongo 2.jpg
Mount Nyiragongo is an active stratovolcano in the Virunga Mountains associated with the Albertine Rift. It is located inside Virunga National Park, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, about 20 km (12 mi) north of the town of Goma and Lake Kivu and just west of the border with Rwanda. The main crater is about two km wide and usually contains a lava lake. The crater presently has two distinct cooled lava benches within the crater walls - one at about 3,175 metres (10,417 ft) and a lower one at about 2,975 m (9,760 ft). Nyiragongo's lava lake has at times been the most voluminous known lava lake in recent history. The depth of the lava lake varies considerably. A maximum elevation of the lava lake was recorded at about 3,250 m (10,660 ft) prior to the January 1977 eruption - a lake depth of about 600 m (2,000 ft). A recent very low elevation of the lava lake was recorded at about 2,700 m (8,900 ft). Nyiragongo and nearby Nyamuragira are together responsible for 40% of Africa's historical volcanic eruptions.

5. Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua

Masaya is a shield volcano located 20 km south of Managua, Nicaragua. It is Nicaragua's first and largest National Park, and one of 78 protected areas of Nicaragua. The volcanic complex is composed of a nested set of calderas and craters, the largest of which is Las Sierras shield volcano and caldera. Within this caldera lies Masaya Volcano sensu stricto, a shallow shield volcano composed of basaltic lavas and tephras. This hosts Masaya caldera, formed 2500 years ago by an 8-km้ฒ  basaltic ignimbrite eruption.

6. Ambrym,Vanuatu (Ambrym Island)
Marum sept 2009.jpg
Ambrym is a volcanic island in the archipelago of Vanuatu (formerly known as the New Hebrides). It is well known for its highly active volcanic activity that includes lava lake formation.

7. Villarrica, Chile
Villarrica lava fountain.jpg
Villarrica is one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rising above the lake and town of the same name. The volcano is also known as Rucapillán, a Mapuche word meaning "House of the Pillán". It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain along the Gastre Fault.
Villarrica, with its lava of basaltic-andesitic composition, is one of only five volcanoes worldwide known to have an active lava lake within its crater. The volcano usually generates strombolian eruptions, with ejection of incandescent pyroclasts and lava flows.

8. Mount Karthala, Comoros (Grande Comore)
Karthala volcano-Comoros.jpg
Karthala is an active volcano and the highest point of the Comoros at 2,361 m (7,746 ft) above sea level. It is the southernmost and larger of the two shield volcanoes forming Grande Comore island, the largest island in the nation of Comoros. The Karthala volcano is notoriously active, having erupted more than 20 times since the 19th century. Frequent eruptions have shaped the volcano’s 3 km by 4 km summit caldera, but the island has largely escaped broad destruction. The eruption, carried a risk of lava flows and deadly volcanic gas.

9. Piton de la Fournaise, France departament (Réunion Island)

Piton de la Fournaise or  "Peak of the Furnace" is a shield volcano on the eastern side of Réunion island (a French department) in the Indian Ocean. It is currently one of the most active volcanoes in the world, along with Kīlauea in the Hawaiian Islands (Pacific Ocean), Stromboli, Etna (Italy) and Mount Erebus in Antarctica.
Piton de la Fournaise is often known locally as le Volcan (The Volcano); it is a major tourist attraction on Réunion island.

10. Ol Doinyo Lengai, Tanzania
Crater of Ol Doinyo Lengai (Jan 2011).jpg
Ol Doinyo Lengai is an active volcano located in Arusha Region, Tanzania and is part of the volcanic system of the East African Rift. It is located in the eastern Rift Valley, or Gregory Rift, south of both Lake Natron and Kenya. It is unique among active volcanoes in that it produces natrocarbonatite lava, a unique occurrence of volcanic carbonatite. Further, the temperature of its lava as it emerges is only around 510 °C (950 °F). A few older extinct carbonatite volcanoes are located nearby, including Homa Mountain.

Source: wikipedia.org


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