10 + 2 Mais destrutivos e explosivas erupções vulcânicas da história

10 + 2 Most destructive and explosive volcano eruptions of history
In explosive eruptions, the eruption of magma is driven by the rapid release of pressure, often involving the explosion of gas previously dissolved within the material. The most famous and destructive historical eruptions are mainly of this type. An eruptive phase can consist of a single eruption, or a sequence of several eruptions spread over several days, weeks or months. Explosive eruptions usually involve thick, highly viscous, silicic or felsic magma, high in volatiles like water vapor and carbon dioxide. Pyroclastic materials are the primary product, typically in the form of tuff. Eruptions the size of that at Lake Toba 74,000 years ago, at least 2,800 cubic kilometres (670 cu mi), occur worldwide every 50,000 to 100,000 years.

Volcano—Eruption

1. Guarapuava —Tamarana—Sarusas
File:Parana traps.JPG
A cliff at the Paraná Magmatic Province. Rio do Rastro, Santa Catarina. One can see the near vertical escarpment of silicic succession from waning-stage of volcanism.
Age (Ma): 132 
Location: Paraná and Etendeka traps
Location Volume (km3): 8,600

2. Santa Maria—Fria
Age (Ma): ~132 
Location: Paraná and Etendeka traps
Location Volume (km3): 7,800

3. Guarapuava —Ventura
Age (Ma): ~132 
Location: Paraná and Etendeka traps
Location Volume (km3): 7,600

4. Sam Ignimbrite and Green Tuff
Age (Ma): 29.5 
Location: Yemen
Location Volume (km3): 6,800
Notes: Volume includes 5550 km³ of distal tuffs. This estimate is uncertain to a factor of 2 or 3.

5. Goboboseb–Messum volcanic centre—Springbok quartz latite unit
Age (Ma): 132
Location: Paraná and Etendeka traps, Brazil and Namibia
Location Volume (km3): 6,340

6. Caxias do Sul—Grootberg
Age (Ma): ~132
Location: Paraná and Etendeka traps
Location Volume (km3): 5,650

7. La Garita Caldera—Fish Canyon tuff
File:WheelerGACO.jpg

Age (Ma): 27.8
Location: San Juan volcanic field, Colorado
Location Volume (km3): 5,000
Notes: Commonly regarded as the largest tuff ever measured on Earth, or largest confidently measured tuff on earth. It is part of at least 20 large caldera-forming eruptions in the San Juan volcanic field and surrounding area that formed around 26 to 35 Ma.

8. Jacui—Goboboseb II
Age (Ma): ~132
Location: Paraná and Etendeka traps
Location Volume (km3): 4,350

9. Ourinhos—Khoraseb
Age (Ma): ~132
Location: Paraná and Etendeka traps
Location Volume (km3): 3,900

10. Jabal Kura'a Ignimbrite
Age (Ma): 29.6
Location: Yemen
Location Volume (km3): 3,800
Notes: Volume estimate is uncertain to a factor of 2 or 3.

11. Windows Butte tuff
Age (Ma): 31.4
Location: William's Ridge, central Nevada
Location Volume (km3): 3,500
Notes: Part of the Mid-Tertiary ignimbrite flare-up

12. Anita Garibaldi—Beacon
Age (Ma): ~132
Location: Paraná and Etendeka traps
Location Volume (km3): 3,450

Source: wikipedia.org

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