10 + 2 Acordos de controle de Armas Químicas

10 + 2 Control Agreements Chemical Arms
Chemical arms control is the attempt to limit the use or possession of chemical weapons through arms control agreements. These agreements are often motivated by the common belief "that these weapons ...are abominable", and by a general agreement that chemical weapons do "not accord with the feelings and principles of civilized warfare.
Note: The images are not consistent with the treaties.

1. Strasbourg Agreement
Year: 1675
Parties: France; Holy Roman Empire
Prohibited the use of poison bullets in wars between the two states.
File:WMD world map.svg
Image of world map with WMD hazard symbols superimposed on it.

2. Brussels Declaration
Year: 1874
Parties: Never ratified
Proposed a ban on "employment of poison or poisoned weapons". It was never adopted, but helped lead to the Hague Conventions.
File:Syrian soldier aims an AK-47.jpg
A Syrian soldier aims an AK-47 assault rifle wearing a Soviet-made, model ShMS nuclear–biological–chemical warfare mask.



3. Declaration of the Hague Convention of 1899
Year: 1899
Parties: 31 states
Banned "projectiles the sole objective of which is the diffusion of asphyxiating or deleterious gases."
File:Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces in Battle of Shanghai 1937.jpg
Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces wearing gas masks and rubber gloves during a chemical attack near Chapei in the Battle of Shanghai.

4. Hague Convention of 1907
Year: 1907
Parties: 35 states
Banned the use of "poisons or poisonous weapons".
File:Soldiers at MOPP level 4.jpg
U.S. soldiers wearing full chemical protection

5. Treaty of Versailles
Year: 1919
Parties: Germany; Allies of World War I
Forbade the production or importation of poison gases by Germany.
File:Englische Gasbomben.jpg
A British gas bomb that was used during World War I

6. Washington Arms Conference
Year: 1922
Parties: Never ratified
Proposed a ban on all forms of chemical warfare.
File:155mmMustardGasShells.jpg
Pallets of 155 mm artillery shells containing "HD" (distilled sulfur mustard agent) at Pueblo Depot Activity (PUDA) chemical weapons storage facility

7. Geneva Protocol
Year: 1925
Parties: 137 states
Banned the use of "asphyxiating, poisonous or other Gases, and bacteriological methods of warfare."
File:JACADS prior to demolition.jpg
Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System prior to demolition.

8. World Disarmament Conference
Year: 1933
Parties: Never ratified
Proposed an expansion of the Geneva Protocol to provide a precise definition of chemical warfare and prohibit chemical warfare against non-signatory states.
File:Chemical agent protection.jpg
A Swedish Army soldier wearing a chemical agent protective suit (C-vätskeskydd) and protection mask (skyddsmask 90).

9. Biological Weapons Convention
Year: 1972
Parties: 163 states
Banned all forms of biological warfare. While not a chemical arms control treaty, it was the result of discussions on both chemical and biological weapons and an important stepping stone towards chemical weapons agreements.
File:USChemicalWeaponsStockpiles082808.jpg
Stockpile/disposal site locations for the United States' chemical weapons and the sites operating status as of August 28, 2008.

10. Australia Group
Year: 1985
Parties: 41 states
A group of countries formed to control the export of materials that could be used in chemical and biological warfare. Prohibited shipments of chemical weapons and regulated trade in precursors.
File:Gas shell (AWM 028467).jpg
An Australian observer who has moved into a gas-affected target area to record results, examines an unexploded shell.

11. Declaration of the Conference on Chemical Weapons Use
Year: 1989
Parties: 149 states
A gathering of states that reaffirmed the Geneva Protocol. All states agreed to "solemnly affirm their commitments not to use chemical weapons and condemn such use."

12. Chemical Weapons Convention
Year: 1993
Parties: 188 states
Prohibited the "development, production, acquisition, retention, stockpiling, transfer and use of all chemical weapons." Required states to declare and destroy their chemical arsenals, and provided for the control of chemical weapons precursors.

Source: wikipedia.org

LinkWithin

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...