10 + 2 Territórios em disputa no Mundo

10 + 2 Disputed Territories in the World
Note: By alphabetical order. Until 2012.

1. Abkhazia Partly
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Freedom Status: Free
Abkhazia is a disputed territory on the eastern coast of the Black Sea and the south-western flank of the Caucasus.
Abkhazia considers itself an independent state, called the Republic of Abkhazia or Apsny. This status is recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Nauru, Tuvalu and also by the partially recognised state of South Ossetia, and the unrecognized Transnistria and Nagorno-Karabakh.
The Georgian government and the majority of the world's governments consider Abkhazia a part of Georgia's territory. Under Georgia's official designation it is an autonomous republic, called the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia, whose government sits in exile in Tbilisi.

2. Gaza Strip
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Freedom Status: Not Free
The Gaza Strip is a self-governing entity on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea that borders Egypt on the southwest (11 km) and Israel on the east and north (51 km (32 mi)). From 2007, the Gaza Strip is de-facto governed by Hamas, a Palestinian faction claiming to be the legitimate representatives of the Palestinian National Authority and the Palestinian People. From 2012, Gaza Strip is recognized by the UN as part of the State of Palestine and is claimed by the Palestinian government in Ramallah; however implementation of Palestinian reconciliation to allow merger of Gaza and Ramallah administrations have so far failed.

3. Indian Kashmir
Freedom Status: Partly Free
Kashmir is the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term Kashmir geographically denoted only the valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range. Today, it denotes a larger area that includes the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir (which consists of Jammu, Kashmir Valley, and the Ladakh regions), the Pakistan-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan, and the Chinese-administered regions of Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract.

In the first half of the 1st millennium, the Kashmir region became an important centre of Hinduism and later of Buddhism; later still, in the ninth century, Kashmir Shaivism arose. In 1349, Shah Mir became the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir, inaugurating the Salatin-i-Kashmir or Swati dynasty. For the next five centuries, Muslim monarchs ruled Kashmir, including the Mughals, who ruled from 1526 until 1751, and the Afghan Durrani Empire, which ruled from 1747 until 1820.That year, the Sikhs, under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir. In 1846, after the Sikh defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War, and upon the purchase of the region from the British under the Treaty of Amritsar, the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, became the new ruler of Kashmir. The rule of his descendants, under the paramountcy (or tutelage) of the British Crown, lasted until 1947, when the former princely state became a disputed territory, now administered by three countries: India, Pakistan, and the People's Republic of China.

4. Nagorno-KarabakhShushi tank memorial-DCP 3043.JPG
Freedom Status: Not Free
Nagorno-Karabakh, officially the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic , Artsakh Republic or Republic of Artsakh is a republic in the South Caucasus recognised only by three other non-UN states. Recognised by the United Nations as part of Azerbaijan, Nagorno-Karabakh controls most of the territory of the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast and some of the surrounding area, giving it a border with Armenia to the west and Iran to the south.

The predominantly Armenian-populated region of Nagorno-Karabakh was claimed by both Armenia and Azerbaijan when both countries became independent in 1918. After the Soviet Union established control over the area, it created the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) within the Azerbaijan SSR in 1923. In the final years of the Soviet Union, the region re-emerged as a source of dispute between Armenia and Azerbaijan. In 1991, a referendum held in the NKAO and the neighbouring Shahumian region resulted in a declaration of independence. Large-scale ethnic conflict led to the 1991–1994 Nagorno-Karabakh War, which ended with a ceasefire that left the current borders.

5. Northern Cyprus
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Freedom Status: Free
Northern Cyprus (or North Cyprus), officially the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, is a self declared state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus. Its de facto independence recognised only by Turkey, Northern Cyprus is recognised by the United Nations as territory of the Republic of Cyprus under unlawful Turkish military occupation since the Turkish Invasion.
Northern Cyprus extends from the tip of the Karpass Peninsula in the north east, westward to Morphou Bay and Cape Kormakitis (the Kokkina/Erenköy exclave marks the westernmost extent of the area), and southward to the village of Louroujina/Akıncılar. A buffer zone under the control of the United Nations stretches between Northern Cyprus and the rest of the island and divides Nicosia, the island's largest city and capital of both states.
The 1974 coup d'état, an attempt to annex the island to Greece, was followed by the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. This resulted in the eviction of much of the north's Greek Cypriot population, the flight of Turkish Cypriots from the south, and the partitioning of the island, leading to a unilateral declaration of independence by the North in 1983. Due to its lack of recognition, Northern Cyprus is heavily dependent on Turkey for economic, political and military support.

Attempts to reach a solution to the Cyprus dispute have been unsuccessful. Recognising the need for a resolution, in May 2008 the two sides began another round of negotiations after committing themselves to working towards a bicommunal, bizonal federation with political equality, as defined by relevant Security Council resolutions. The Turkish Army maintains a large force in Northern Cyprus with its presence supported and approved by the TRNC government, which the Republic of Cyprus regards as an illegal occupation force, with its presence denounced in several United Nations Security Council resolutions.

6. Pakistani Kashmir
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Freedom Status: Not Free
Azad Jammu and Kashmir abbreviated AJK or, for short, Azad Kashmir (literally "Free Kashmir") is the southernmost and the smaller of two political entities which together constitute the Pakistani-controlled part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, which ceased to exist as a result of the first Kashmir war in 1947. The northernmost and the larger of the two political entities is the Pakistani-controlled territory of Gilgit-Baltistan. Azad Jammu and Kashmir borders the Indian-controlled state of Jammu and Kashmir to the east (separated from it by the Line of Control), Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province to the west, the Pakistani-controlled territory of Gilgit-Baltistan to the north, and Pakistan's Punjab Province to the south. With its capital at Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir covers an area of 13,297 square kilometres (5,134 sq mi) and has an estimated population of about four million.

Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan together constitute the region referred to as "Pakistani-controlled Kashmir" by the United Nations and other international organizations and as "Pakistan-occupied Kashmir" in India, in contrast to the names "Indian-administered Kashmir" and "Indian-occupied Kashmir" (in Pakistan), referring to the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. The area which comprises Azad Jammu and Kashmir was captured from the princely state by rebelling militias and the Pakistani army.

7. Somaliland
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Freedom Status: Partly Free
Somaliland is an unrecognised self-declared de facto sovereign state that is internationally recognised as an autonomous region of Somalia. The government of Somaliland regards itself as the successor state to the British Somaliland protectorate, which was independent on 26 June 1960 as the State of Somaliland, before uniting with the Trust Territory of Somalia (the former Italian Somaliland) on 1 July 1960 to form the Somali Republic.
Somaliland is bordered by Ethiopia in the south and west, Djibouti in the northwest, the Gulf of Aden in the north, and the autonomous Puntland region of Somalia to the east.
In 1988, the Siad Barre regime committed massacres against the people of Somaliland, which were among the events that led to the Somali Civil War. The war left the economic and military infrastructure severely damaged. After the collapse of the central government in 1991, the local government, led by the Somali National Movement (SNM), declared independence from the rest of Somalia on 18 May of the same year.

Since then, the territory has been governed by an administration that seeks self-determination as the Republic of Somaliland. The local government maintains informal ties with some foreign governments, who have sent delegations to Hargeisa. Ethiopia also maintains a trade office in the region. However, Somaliland's self-proclaimed independence remains unrecognised by any country or international organisation. It is a member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, whose members consist of indigenous peoples, minorities, and unrecognised or occupied territories.

8. South Ossetia
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Freedom Status: Not Free
South Ossetia is a disputed region and partly recognised state in the South Caucasus, located in the territory of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast within the former Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic of the USSR.
South Ossetians declared independence from Georgia in 1990, calling themselves the Republic of South Ossetia. The Georgian government responded by abolishing South Ossetia's autonomy and trying to retake the region by force. This led to the 1991–1992 South Ossetia War. Georgian fighting against those controlling South Ossetia occurred on two other occasions, in 2004 and 2008. The latter conflict led to the Russia–Georgia war, during which Ossetian and Russian forces gained full de facto control of the territory of the former South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.

In the wake of the 2008 South Ossetia War, Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Nauru and Tuvalu recognised South Ossetia's independence. Georgia does not recognise the existence of South Ossetia as a political entity, including most of the area in its Shida Kartli region. Georgia considers South Ossetia to be occupied by the Russian army.

9. Tibet
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Freedom Status: Not Free
Tibet is a plateau region in Asia, north-east of the Himalayas, in the People's Republic of China. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpas, Qiang, and Lhobas, and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of Han and Hui people. Tibet is the highest region on earth, with an average elevation of 4,900 metres (16,000 ft).

Tibet emerged in the 7th century as a unified empire, but it soon divided into a variety of territories. The bulk of western and central Tibet (Ü-Tsang) were often at least nominally unified under a series of Tibetan governments in Lhasa, Shigatse, or nearby locations; these governments were at various times under Mongol and Chinese overlordship. The eastern regions of Kham and Amdo often maintained a more decentralized indigenous political structure, being divided among a number of small principalities and tribal groups, while also often falling more directly under Chinese rule; most of this area was eventually incorporated into the Chinese provinces of Sichuan and Qinghai. The current borders of Tibet were generally established in the 18th century. Following the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1912, Qing soldiers were disarmed and escorted out of Tibet Area (Ü-Tsang). The region declared its independence in 1913. Later Lhasa took control of the western part of Xikang Province. The region maintained its autonomy until 1951 when, following the Invasion of Tibet, Tibet was assimilated into the People's Republic of China (PRC), and the previous Tibetan government was abolished in 1959 after a failed uprising. Today, the PRC governs western and central Tibet as the Tibet Autonomous Region while eastern areas are mostly within Sichuan and Qinghai provinces. There are tensions regarding Tibet's political status and dissident groups are active in exile.

10. Transnistria

Freedom Status: Not Free
Transnistria, also called Trans-Dniestr or Transdniestria is a de facto sovereign state located mostly on a strip of land between the River Dniester and the eastern Moldovan border with Ukraine. Since its declaration of independence in 1990, and especially after the War of Transnistria in 1992, it is governed as the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, also known as Pridnestrovie) a state with limited recognition that claims territory to the east of the River Dniester, the city of Bender, and its surrounding localities located on the west bank. The terms "Transnistria" and "Pridnestrovie" both reference the Dniester River.

The Republic of Moldova does not recognise the PMR and considers most of the territory of Transnistria as part of Moldova as the Autonomous territorial unit with special legal status Transnistria (Unitatea teritorială autonomă cu statut juridic special Transnistria), or Stînga Nistrului ("Left Bank of the Dniester").

11. West Bank
Freedom Status: Not Free

12. Western Sahara
Freedom Status: Not Free

Source: www.freedomhouse.org


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