10 Projetos mais famosos de Mikhail Kalashnikov (AK-47)

10 Most famous design of Mikhail Kalashnikov (AK-47)
Mikhail Timofeyevich Kalashnikov (Russian: Михаил Тимофеевич Калашников; 10 November 1919 – 23 December 2013) was a Russian small arms designer, most famous for developing the AK-47, AKM, and AK-74 assault rifles.
During his career, Kalashnikov designed about 150 models of small weapons. The most famous of them are:

1. AK-47

The AK-47 is a selective-fire, gas-operated 7.62×39mm assault rifle, first developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov. It is officially known as Avtomat Kalashnikova (Russian: Автомат Калашникова). It is also known as Kalashnikov, AK, or in Russian slang, Kalash.
Design work on the AK-47 began in the last year of World War II (1945). After the war in 1946, the AK-46 was presented for official military trials. In 1948 the fixed-stock version was introduced into active service with selected units of the Soviet Army. An early development of the design was the AKS (S—Skladnoy or "folding"), which was equipped with an underfolding metal shoulder stock. In 1949, the AK-47 was officially accepted by the Soviet Armed Forces and used by the majority of the member states of the Warsaw Pact.

The original AK-47 was one of the first assault rifles of 2nd generation, after the German StG 44. Even after six decades the model and its variants remain the most widely used and popular assault rifles in the world because of their durability, low production cost, availability, and ease of use. It has been manufactured in many countries and has seen service with armed forces as well as irregular forces worldwide. The AK-47 was the basis for developing many other types of individual and crew-served firearms. More AK-type rifles have been produced than all other assault rifles combined.

2. AKM

The AKM (Russian: Автомат Калашникова Модернизированный; Avtomat Kalashnikova Modernizirovanniy or "Kalashnikov modernized automatic rifle") is a 7.62mm assault rifle designed by Mikhail Kalashnikov. It is an upgraded version of the AK-47 rifle developed in the 1950s.

Introduced into service with the Soviet Army in 1959, the AKM is the most ubiquitous variant of the entire AK series of firearms and it has found widespread use with most member states of the former Warsaw Pact and its many African and Asian allies as well as being widely exported and produced in many other countries. The production of these Soviet rifles was carried out at both the Tula Arms Plant and Izhmash. It was officially replaced in Soviet frontline service by the AK-74 in the late 1970s, but remains in use worldwide.

3. AK-74 / AKS-74U / AK-74M / AKS-74
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The AK-74 is an assault rifle developed in the early 1970s in the Soviet Union as the replacement for the earlier AKM (itself a refined version of the AK-47). It uses a smaller intermediate cartridge, the 5.45×39mm, replacing the 7.62×39mm chambering of earlier Kalashnikov-pattern weapons.
The rifle first saw service with Soviet forces engaged in the 1979 Afghanistan conflict. Presently, the rifle continues to be used by the majority of countries of the former USSR. Additionally, licensed copies were produced in Bulgaria (AK-74 and AKS-74U), the former East Germany (MPi-AK-74N, MPi-AKS-74N, MPi-AKS-74NK) and Romania (PA md. 86). Besides former Soviet republics and eastern European countries, Mongolia, North Korean Special Forces, and Vietnamese People's Naval infantry use AK-74s.

AKS-74U
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In terms of tactical deployment, the AKS-74U bridges the gap between a submachine gun and an assault rifle. It was intended for use mainly with special forces, airborne infantry, rear-echelon support units and armored vehicle crews. It is still used in these roles, but has been augmented by various submachine guns, and the AK-105. It is also commonly used by law enforcement; for example, each urban police foot patrol is issued at least one.

AK-74M
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In 1991 the Izhmash factory in the city of Izhevsk began full scale production of a modernized variant of the AK-74 – the AK-74M (M – Russian: Модернизированный; Modernizirovanniy or "modernized") assault rifle that offers more versatility compared to its predecessor. Apart from several minor production improvements, such as a lightened bolt and carrier assembly, the rifle features a new synthetic stock made from a black, glass-filled polyamide that is shaped like the AK-74 fixed stock, but also side-folds like in the AKS-74. Additionally the AK-74M uses an improved muzzle device and reinforced smooth dust cover. Each AK-74M is fitted with a side-rail bracket for mounting optics. The AK-74M would have been adopted by the Soviet Union as the standard service rifle, and has been accepted as the new service rifle of the Russian Federation with some AK-74Ms featuring a Picatinny rail for easier mounting of optics.

AKS-74
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The AKS-74 ("S" – Russian: складной; Skladnoy, or "folding"), is a variant of the AK-74 equipped with a side-folding metal shoulder stock, designed primarily for use with air assault infantry and developed alongside the basic AK-74. Unlike the AKMS's somewhat fragile underfolding stock (modeled after the MP 40 submachine gun stock), the AKS-74 stock is fabricated from stamped sheet metal struts, machine pressed into a "U" shape and assembled by punch fit and welding. The stock has a triangular shape; it lacks the folding shoulder pad found on the AKMS stock and is folded to the left side of the receiver. The hinged stock is securely locked in its extended position by a spring-loaded button catch located at the rear of the receiver. When folded, the stock is held closed by a spring-loaded capture hook situated on the left side at the front of the receiver housing. A rear-mounted sling swivel is also provided on the right side at the beginning of the stock frame.

4. AK-101 / AK-102

The AK-101 is an assault rifle of the Kalashnikov series. The AK-101 is designed for the world export market, using 5.56×45mm NATO cartridges, which is the standard of most NATO armies. The AK-101 is marketed at those looking for a weapon that combines the logistical compatibility and familiarity of the 5.56×45mm NATO round with the reliability of a Kalashnikov. It is designed with modern and composite materials, including plastics that reduce weight and improve accuracy. Many of the improvements found in the AK-101 are also present in the AK-103 and the rest of the AK-10x series of rifles.
The AK-101 is a selective fire weapon that can be fired in either semi-automatic or fully automatic mode. The disassembly procedure for the AK-101 is identical to that of the AK-74. The AK-101 has an attachment rail installed on the side of the receiver for mounting scopes and other optical sights, which will accept most types of Russian and European AK optics. The rifle accepts most synthetic and metal AK-74-style magazines with 30 round capacity. The AK-101 has a 406 mm (16.0 in) barrel with an AK-74 style muzzle brake attached to the barrel to control muzzle climb.
The AK-102, AK-104 and AK-105 are the designations given to the more compact carbine variants of the AK-10x rifle series, firing the 5.56×45mm NATO, 7.62×39mm M43 and 5.45×39mm M74 rifle rounds respectively. These carbines differ from the normal rifles of the series in that they have much shorter barrels, only 314 mm (12.4 in) in length. These AK-10x carbines, much like their rifle counterparts, were made primarily for export.
A common misconception is that the AK-101 has entered service as the main assault rifle of the Russian Federation, but this is not true; the AK-74M is still the main assault rifle with the AK-105 being introduced alongside, both chambered for 5.45×39mm. The AKM firing 7.62 mm Soviet rounds is in limited service with selected units in the Russian army, and the AK-103 is in service with some Russian civil police agencies and spec ops units. The advanced AN-94 is entering limited service in the elite forces of the Russian military, some Russian police forces, and the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
The AK-101 is chambered in 5.56mm NATO and features a black glass-filled polyamide side folding stock. The side folding stock looks similar to a normal fixed stock, but folds and locks securely to the left side of the receiver. It has a cutout to compensate for the side rail.

The AK-102 assault rifle is a shortened carbine version of the AK-101 rifle, which in turn was derived from the original AK-47 design and its AK-74 successor. The AK-102, AK-104, and AK-105 are very similar in design, the only difference being the caliber and corresponding magazine type. The AK-102 is an export version chambered to fire 5.56×45mm NATO ammunition.

5. AK-103 / AK-104

The AK-103 assault rifle is a derivative of the AK-74M chambered for the 7.62×39mm M43 round, similar to the older AKM. The AK-103 can be fitted with a variety of sights, including laser, night vision, and telescopic sights, plus a suppressor and the GP-25 grenade launcher. It uses plastic components whenever possible instead of wood or metal in order to reduce weight.
Differences from the AKM series include redesigned rear and front trunnions, as well as a 90 degree gas block, AK-74 style front sight block, the use of a black ribbed 30-round magazine constructed of phenolic resin (which is AKM-compatible as well), an AK-74-type muzzle brake, and black synthetic furniture with a heat shield. These improvements allow the AK-103 to have less recoil, lower weight, better accuracy and enhanced durability than the AKM assault rifles that preceded the AK-103.

The AK-104 is a compact version of the AK-103. It combines features from the older AKS-74U carbine with features from the AK-103, giving a more accurate carbine. It is also chambered for 7.62×39mm ammunition.

6. AK-105

The AK-105 is a shortened carbine version of the AK-74M rifle, which in turn was derived from the original AK-47 design and its AK-74 successor. The AK-102, AK-104, and AK-105 are very similar in design, the only difference being the caliber and corresponding magazine type. The AK-105 is chambered to fire 5.45×39mm ammunition. The AK-105 is supplementing AKS-74U Carbines in Russian Army service.
Compared to the AK-74M, AK-101, and AK-103, which are full-size rifles of similar design, the AK-102, 104, and 105 feature shortened barrels that make them a middle ground between a full rifle and the more compact AKS-74U. However, the AK-105 also features a solid, side-folding polymer stock, unlike the shorter, skeleton-stocked AKS-74U.

The rifle's receiver is made of stamped steel. The magazine is lighter, and more durable than older models, being made out of reinforced fiberglass. The butt stock is also made of plastic, making it lighter, more durable, and it is hollow, allowing a field kit to be stored inside of it.

7. AK-12

The Kalashnikov AK-12 (formerly АK-200) is the newest derivative of the Soviet/Russian AK-47 series of assault rifles and is proposed for possible general issue to the Russian Army, and was undergoing testing. However, in 2013, new Russian sources announced that the regular Russian Army is not adopting the rifle and the AK-74 and AK-74M will remain standard issue weapons for the immediate future.

On May 25, 2010, Russia’s media published a Russian Defence Ministry statement that the AK-12 rifle was to be tested in 2011. The demonstration model (AK-200), presented to Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin during his official visit to inspect the products of the Izhmash arms manufacturing plant in Izhevsk, was apparently a basic AK-74 in standard 5.45×39mm caliber. On the demonstrator, the traditional locations of cocking handle, safety lever and fire selector remained unchanged, but the AK-12 production model featured revisions to all of these features. The Izhmash demonstrator was fitted with the large capacity 60 round casket magazine.

8. RPK / RPK-74
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The RPK (Ruchnoy Pulemyot Kalashnikova, Russian: Ручной пулемёт Калашникова or "Kalashnikov hand-held machine gun") is a 7.62x39mm light machine gun of Soviet design, developed by Mikhail Kalashnikov in the late 1950s, parallel with the AKM assault rifle. It was created as part of a program designed to standardize the small arms inventory of the Red Army, where it replaced the 7.62x39mm RPD light machine gun. The RPK continues to be used by the armed forces of countries of the former Soviet Union and certain African and Asian nations. The RPK was also manufactured in Bulgaria, Poland, and Romania.
The RPK functions identically to the AK-47. It also uses the same 7.62x39mm ammunition. It has a similar design layout to the AKM and AK-47 series of rifles, with modifications to increase the RPK's effective range and accuracy, enhance its sustained fire capability, and strengthen the receiver.

9. PK / PKM / PKP
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The original PK (Пулемёт Калашникова: Pulemyot Kalashnikova, or "Kalashnikov's Machinegun") was a development of Kalashnikov's automatic rifle design, firing the 7.62x54mmR Eastern Bloc standard ammunition originally from the Mosin–Nagant. It is equipped with a simple bipod and is designed as a squad-level support weapon; it is also suitable for installation and vehicle mounting. The PK machine gun can be used as a light anti-aircraft weapon when it is put on an AA mount. Most are belt-fed, using linked 25 round belts. These 25-round belts can be linked to any length necessary. Typical of Soviet machine guns, the standard model feeds from the right and ejects its spent cases via an ejection port on the left side of the weapon, contrary to the right side ejection port seen in most Western machine guns.

10. Saiga semi-automatic rifle

Named after the Saiga Antelope, the Saiga series of rifles is based on the AK-47 weapon system originally designed by Mikhail Kalashnikov. The Saiga platform was developed for shooters who wanted the reliability of an AK pattern rifle in a non-military package.
The Saiga rifles are a sport version of the AK-series rifles, and are marketed for hunting and civilian use.

Source: wikipedia.org

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