10 Peixes mais capturados dos Oceanos

10 Most Captured Fish in the Ocean
This is a list of aquatic animals that are harvested commercially in the greatest amounts, listed in order of tonnage per year (2012) by the Food and Agriculture Organization.
Other wild species total 49,410,980 for a world total of 91,336,230 tonnes of wild, captured animals by year.

1. Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens)

Wild in tonnes: 4,692,855
Note: The Peruvian anchoveta is a species of fish of the anchovy family, Engraulidae. It has yielded greater catches than any other single wild fish species in the world, with annual harvests varying between 4.2 to 8.3 million tonnes in 2008-2012. Almost all of this production is used for fishmeal industry.
The anchoveta has been characterised as "the most heavily exploited fish in world history". The top yield was 13,1 million tonnes in 1971, but has undergone great fluctuations through times. After a period of plenty in the late 1960s, the population was greatly reduced by overfishing and the 1972 El Niño event, when warm water drifted over the cold Humboldt Current and lowered the depth of the thermocline. Nutrient rich waters were then no longer upwelled and phytoplankton production decreased, leaving the anchoveta with a depleted food source. A drastic reduction was also brought about by another strong El Niño in the early 1980s, but production was back up to 12,5 Mt in 1994. In 2008-2012, the annual catches have varied between 4.2 to 8.3 million tonnes, which is consistently more than for any other fish species harvested in the wild.

2. Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma)

Wild in tonnes: 3,271,426
Note: This species is often the main ingredient in crab sticks.
Alaska pollock or walleye pollock is a species of the cod family Gadidae. Alaska pollock is a semi pelagic schooling fish widely distributed in the North Pacific with largest concentrations found in the eastern Bering Sea.
While related to the common Atlantic pollock species of the same family, the Alaska pollock is not a member of the same Pollachius genus.

The Alaska pollock has been said to be "the largest remaining source of palatable fish in the world." Around 3 million tons of Alaska pollock are caught each year in the North Pacific from Alaska to northern Japan. Alaska pollock is the world's second most important fish species in terms of total catch.

3. Skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis)

Wild in tonnes: 2,795,339
Note: The skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, is a medium-sized perciform fish in the tuna family, Scombridae. It is otherwise known as the aku, arctic bonito, mushmouth, oceanic bonito, striped tuna, or victor fish. It grows up to 1 m (3 ft) in length. It is a cosmopolitan pelagic fish found in tropical and warm-temperate waters. It is a very important species for fisheries.

4. Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus)

Wild in tonnes: 1,849,969
Note: Atlantic herring is a herring in the family Clupeidae. It is one of the most abundant fish species in the world. Atlantic herrings can be found on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, congregating in large schools. They can grow up to 45 centimetres (18 in) in length and weigh more than 0.5 kilograms (1.1 lb). They feed on copepods, krill and small fish, while their natural predators are seals, whales, cod and other larger fish.
The Atlantic herring fishery has long been an important part of the economy of New England and the Canadian Maritime provinces. This is because the fish congregate relatively near to the coast in massive schools, notably in the cold waters of the semi-enclosed Gulf of Maine and Gulf of St. Lawrence. North Atlantic herring schools have been measured up to 4 cubic kilometres (0.96 cu mi) in size, containing an estimated 4 billion fish.

5. Chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus)

Wild in tonnes: 1,581,314
Note: Most important of the differences, anatomically, is the fact that the chub mackerel has a well-developed swim bladder attached with the esophagus, which the "true mackerels" in the Scomber genus lack. But it is not necessary to open the fish to identify it for there is a characteristic color difference between them, the Atlantic being silvery-sided below the mid line, whereas the lower part of the sides of the hardhead (otherwise colored somewhat like the Atlantic) are mottled with small dusky blotches, and the chub has a larger eye than the Atlantic. Less obvious differences are that the dorsal fins are closer together in the chub and that there are only 9 or 10 spines in its first dorsal fin instead of 11 or more, which is the usual count in the Atlantic mackerel. In most species the mackerel is known to travel in large schools. It is a smaller fish than its better known relatives, growing to a length of about 8 to 14 inches.

6. Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares)

Wild in tonnes: 1,352,204
Note: The yellowfin tuna is a species of tuna found in pelagic waters of tropical and subtropical oceans worldwide.
Yellowfin is often marketed as ahi, from the Hawaiian ʻahi, a name also used there for the closely related bigeye tuna. The species name, albacares ("white meat") can also lead to confusion: in English the albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) is a different species, while yellowfin is officially designated albacore in French and referred to as albacora by Portuguese fishermen.

7. Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus)

Wild in tonnes: 1,296,383
Note: Japanese anchovy is a schooling fish of the family Engraulidae. It is common in the Pacific Ocean south from the Sea of Okhotsk, widespread in the Sea of Japan, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea, and near the coasts of Japan. They live up to 2–3 years, similar to European anchovy. They spawn from Taiwan to southern Sakhalin.

8. Largehead hairtail (Trichiurus lepturus)

Wild in tonnes: 1,235,373
Note: Largehead hairtail is a major commercial species. With reported landings of more 1.3 mill. tonnes in 2009, it was the 6th most important capture fish species.
They are also called "sword-fish" in Portugal and Brazil (peixe-espada), where they are eaten grilled or fried. Its flesh is firm yet tender when cooked, with a moderate level of "fishiness" to the smell and a low level of oiliness. The largehead hairtail is also notable for being fairly easy to debone.

9. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

Wild in tonnes: 1,114,382
Note: The Atlantic cod is a well-known benthopelagic fish belonging to the family Gadidae widely consumed by humans. It is also commercially known as cod, codling or haberdine.
It can grow to 2 meters in length and weigh up to 96 kilograms (212 lb). It can live for 25 years and usually attains sexual maturity between ages two and four, but cod in the northeast Arctic can take as long as eight years to fully mature. Colouring is brown to green, with spots on the dorsal side, shading to silver ventrally. A lateral line is clearly visible. Its habitat ranges from the shoreline down to the continental shelf.
Several cod stocks collapsed in the 1990s (declined by >95% of maximum historical biomass) and have failed to recover even with the cessation of fishing. This absence of the apex predator has led to a trophic cascade in many areas. Many other cod stocks remain at risk. The "Atlantic cod" is labelled VU (vulnerable) on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Brazil is a largest consumer of Atlantic cod, followed by Portugal.

10. European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus)

Wild in tonnes: 1,019,392
Note: European pilchard is a species of ray-finned fish in the monotypic genus Sardina. Littoral species. Forms schools, usually at depths of 25 to 55 or even 100 m by day, rising to 10 to 35 m at night. Feeds mainly on planktonic crustaceans, also on larger organisms. Spawns in batches, in the open sea or near the coast, producing 50,000-60,000 eggs with a mean diameter of 1.5 mm.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_harvested_aquatic_animals_by_weight


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